It is the secret agent of the French language. Car il passe souvent inaperçu.
It is only two letters long, and most of the time isn’t even pronounced. Yet it changes everything.
Have you guessed?
The little negation word. One of a couple, ne pas, which preface or encircle a verb and transform its meaning from positive to negative.
Fumer. Ne pas fumer. Je fume. Je ne fume pas.
Simple, right? Its role and place in French grammar are perfectly clear. Until it goes undercover.
I didn’t learn this at the Alliance Française or in any French grammar book. I went out on the street and found that in practice, the ‘ne’ is simply dropped in spoken French.
Ce n’est pas becomes c’est pas. But it doesn’t really matter (ce n’est pas grave) unless you’re a stickler like me. Because you are saved by the unmistakeable ‘pas’ which is your very big clue that there’s a negative in there.
‘Je ne sais pas’ becomes ‘j’sais pas’ or, to my non-native ears, what sounds like ‘chez pas’. (At first I wondered, who is this Pas and where does he live? Guess I’ll never know.)
So it’s complicated. But, hey, if them’s the rules, so be it. I can work with that.
Mais non! Ce n’est pas si simple.
To make matters more complicated, in literary French, the ‘ne’ often stays but the ‘pas’ is dropped. There’s a whole lot of rules as to when this happens, which you can read about here.
Et ça se complique. ‘Ne’ is often combined with a whole bunch of other words to indicate negation of some sort: jamais, rien, aucun, personne. Then dropped, like a hot potato, in spoken French.
Person? What’s with that? Une personne, ie a person, becomes (ne) personne, ie nobody.
Another variant is ‘ne plus’, which means no longer. Je ne fume plus. When the ‘ne’ disappears, as is its wont, it becomes ‘je fume plus’. Can we English be forgiven for finding this contradictory? I mean, plus is more, n’est-ce pas? In French, the rather subtle distinction is that when plus means more you pronounce the s, and when it means less you just say ‘plu’.
None of this can be learned in a book.
Et toi? What French words so you find most confusing? Do you ever find yourself, like me, trying to wrap your head around grammar rules?